For the qualitative determination of the haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 or Hp 2-2 as a predictive marker for cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the top ten chronic diseases. Diabetes - type 1 or 2 - means persistent silent inflammation and oxidative stress. Being chronically ill with diabetes means that patients need ongoing medical treatment, DM often leads to multiple diseases, including multiple morbidity. Despite successful treatment of the classic risk factors hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular comorbidity often occurs in DM. Therefore, the goal in the treatment of diabetes always is the prevention of cardiovascular complications.
At this point Haptoglobin 2-2 comes into play. The function of haptoglobin is to neutralise free hemoglobin, otherwise oxidative tissue damage will occur. Hp forms a complex with Hb, which is captured by macrophages (via CD 163 receptor) and discarded. In humans, there are two alleles (gene variants) of the haptoglobin gene, so that there can be three different genotypes:
Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2.
Clinical studies show that DM patients with the Hp 2-2 genotype - approximately one in three of all diabetics in Europe - have a 2-3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to Hp 2-1 and Hp 1-1 diabetics. This correlation between Hp genotype and cardiovascular risk was not observed in control groups without diabetes. This is very likely due to the fact that the oxidative stress in diabetics is many times higher than in non-diabetics. The oxidation of lipoproteins, in turn, by the Hp 2-2 / Hb complex might be responsible for the vascular complications of diabetes.
Furthermore, it was found that the risk of myocardial infarction and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with Hp 2-2 genotype can be reduced by up to 50% by vitamin E substitution. The mechanism should lie in an improvement of the HDL function.
For Hp 2-2 phenotype diabetics, therefore, the risk of a cardiovascular secondary disease can be significantly reduced by vitamin E administration.
That is why accurate typing is important.
The test is a sandwich ELISA, sample matrix: 15 µl serum/plasma (100 µl of diluted sample is used for the assay).
Automated run possible: e.g. for Dynex DSX and ETI-Max3000
Haptoglobin (Hp) Typing ELISA Cat. No.: KSA71001
(not available in Portugal and Spain)