Article number: K 7810
Standard measuring range
Possible sample matrix and volumes
|EDTA plasma||10 µl|
|Dried blood||50 µl|
Low density liporotein (LDL) is the name given to cholesterol-rich lipoproteins whose main function is to transport cholesterol from the liver to extrahepatic tissues. LDL consists of apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100), cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids.
Elevated LDL cholesterol is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thus coronary heart disease. However, its oxidised forms, such as MDA-LDL (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein), are particularly damaging to blood vessels. Lipid peroxidation is a natural process and only when lipid peroxidation exceeds antioxidant cell protection is the balance disturbed and cell damage occurs. In oxidative metabolic states, oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids produces, among other things, MDA, which is a reactive dialdehyde. MDA-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) is formed by attacking LDL.
Native LDL is taken up by macrophages via specific LDL receptors, which are expressed less when saturated with LDL (feedback). LDL altered by oxidation is no longer recognised as native and is therefore not taken up via regulated and specific receptors. Instead, an unrestrained uptake takes place via non-specific receptors, such as so-called scavenger receptors. The rapid uptake of oxidised LDL into the macrophages leads to their transformation into cholesterol-rich foam cells. The increased occurrence of foam cells is considered one of the first signs in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.